Quick Facts

Greenland: 55,992 (January 2019)
The Faroe Islands: 52,124 (January 2020)
Denmark: 5,822,763 (January 2020)

Arctic Indigenous Peoples

The Kingdom of Denmark in the Arctic region

The Kingdom consists of three parts – Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands – and, by virtue of Greenland is centrally located as a coastal state in the Arctic. This involves specific rights and obligations in the region. Today, both Greenland and the Faroe Islands have extensive self-government.

The Faroe Islands and Greenland have had home rule since 1948 and 1979, respectively. Home rule arrangements have been continuously modernized, most recently by the Takeover Act on Power of Matters and Fields of Responsibility and the Act on Faroes Foreign Policy Powers of 2005 in the Faroe Islands, and the Greenland Self-Government Act of 2009.

The three parts of the Realm share a number of values and interests and all have a responsibility in and for the Arctic region.

In an equal partnership between the three parts of the Danish Realm, the Kingdom of Denmark speaks with one voice in the Arctic Council.

About Greenland

Greenland is the world’s largest non-continental island and is geographically located on the North American continent. However, in terms of geopolitics, it is a part of Europe. Greenland’s icecap covers 81 percent of its area, leaving 15 percent of the coastline inhabitable. There are 17 towns and 58 villages located throughout the country. The population density is the lowest in the world. Counting the ice-free areas only, the population is a mere 0.3 persons per square kilometer.

Greenlanders are descendants from the Inuit Thule Culture. The Thule people were strong hunters, so traditionally hunting had been the most important source for survival of the Greenlandic people. Today, approximately 10 percent of the workforce is involved in the hunting industry. Fishing is Greenland’s primary industry, with major exports including shrimps, Greenland halibut and cod. Greenland is home to many mineral resources, including gold, rubies, diamonds, coppers, Rare Earth Elements and oil. The Tourism sector is also increasing, with tourist numbers rising. Greenland places an emphasis on developing sustainable tourism.

About the Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands comprises a cluster of 18 mountainous islands in the North Atlantic Ocean. Over 53,000 people – originally of Scandinavian and Gaelic descent live in the Faroe Islands. While 17 of the 18 islands are currently inhabited, nearly 40 percent of the population lives in the capital city, Tórshavn.

The Faroe Islands are well-positioned in the middle of the shipping route between Europe and North America, and a short flight away from major cities in Northern Europe. The main industry is fishing and aqua culture. The temperate waters off the coasts make an ideal environment for salmon, Faroese cod and langoustines, which have been an important global export for the Faroe Islands since the late 19th century. Tourism is a relatively new but steadily growing industry. A high level of education and a strong education system contributes to a steadily increasing number of students attending the University of Faroe Islands.


Denmark is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, and consists of a peninsula, Jutland and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, Funen and the North Jutlandic Island. Over 5.8 million people lives in Denmark. Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands are equal entities within the Kingdom of Denmark. The Self-Government Arrangements transfer political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Greenlandic and Faroese authorities. The Danish Government constitutionally conducts Foreign and Security policy of the Kingdom of Denmark in close cooperation with the Governments of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Danish Armed Forces undertake important tasks in the Arctic including the enforcement of sovereignty.

The Kingdom of Denmark in the Arctic Council

The Kingdom of Denmark’s Chairmanship of the Arctic Council in 2009 – 2011 was an important priority for Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. At the Ministerial Meeting in Nuuk in 2011, the Nuuk Declaration was adopted, which among other things determined the role and criteria for admission of new observers, established a permanent secretariat for the Arctic Council in Tromsø, Norway, set up a task force to develop an instrument for preventing and managing potential oil spills in the Arctic and mandated an enhanced communication effort of the Arctic Council. Furthermore, the Ministers signed an agreement on search and rescue in the Arctic (SAR), which as the first legally binding agreement under the auspice of the Arctic Council added a new dimension to the Council’s work.

Thomas Winkler
Thomas Winkler
Senior Arctic Official of the Kingdom of Denmark

Faroe Islands representative

Margretha Jacobsen
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the Government of the Faroe Islands

Greenland representative

Uiloq Mulvad Jessen
Department of Foreign Affairs, the Government of Greenland

Other inquiries

Anne Meldgaard
Chief Adviser – Arctic Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Featured projects

Marine Biodiversity Monitoring

Arctic marine environments are experiencing, or expected to experience, many human-induced and natural pressures.
Photo: Steve Hillebrand/USFWS

Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP)

The CBMP is an international network of scientists, governments, Indigenous organizations and conservation groups working to harmonize and integrate efforts to monitor the Arctic's living resources.

Protection from Invasive Species

The Arctic Invasive Alien Species (ARIAS) Strategy and Action Plan sets forth the priority actions that the Arctic Council and its partners are encouraged to take to protect the Arctic region from a s...

Regional Action Plan on Marine Litter

The Regional Action Plan addresses both sea and land-based activities, focusing on Arctic-specific marine litter sources and pathways that will play an important role in demonstrating Arctic States’ s...

Good Practices for impact assessments and engagement

The Good Practices for Environmental Impact Assessment and Meaningful Engagement in the Arctic (Arctic EIA) provides Arctic-specific recommendations for large-scale projects in the vulnerable and chan...

Arctic Sustainable Energy Futures Toolkit

The project created a comprehensive long-­term energy planning process for socially-­desirable and economically-­feasible energy solutions for communities in the Arctic by developing an Arctic Sustain...

Prevention, Preparedness and Response for small communities

EPPR has been working with small communities to improve their safety in case of an oil spill event.
Arctic Council logo

Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (OECM) Areas in the Arctic Marine Environment

An overview of the current range and understanding of international and national criteria used for identification of OECMs in the Arctic.
Water sampling in the Arctic. Photo: Steve Hillebrand/CAFF

Freshwater Biodiversity Monitoring

Changes in water temperature, permafrost, ice cover extent and duration, hydrological processes and water balance can have unexpected and unpredictable effects on freshwater biodiversity and related e...

Local 2 Global

Circumpolar collaboration for suicide prevention and mental wellness
Photo: iStock / RyersonClark

One Arctic, One Health

A theoretical concept and practical approach for developing and sustaining broad interdisciplinary collaboration – to identify, prevent, and mitigate health risks in humans, animals and the environmen...
iStock / zanskar

Contaminant issues: POPs and mercury

AMAP is assessing the effects of contaminants in the Arctic.
Arctic Council logo

Existing Waste Management Practices and Pollution Control for Marine and Coastal Mining

Arctic coastal mining has a long history. Historically, most of these mines discharged their waste rock and tailings into the ocean. The practice of depositing waste rock and tailings from mines into ...
Arctic Council logo

Marine Invasive Alien Species in Arctic Waters

Protecting the Arctic from the adverse impacts of invasive alien species

Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON)

SAON's vision is a connected, collaborative, and comprehensive long-term pan-Arctic Observing System that serves societal needs. SAON's mission is to facilitate, coordinate, and advocate for coordinat...
Cod drying. Photo: iStock

Blue Bioeconomy in the Arctic Region

The sustainable and intelligent use of renewable aquatic natural resources, with a focus on improving utilization and creating higher-value products.
Murres on cliff. Photo: iStock

Coastal Biodiversity Monitoring

Arctic coastal ecosystems include those areas within the Arctic region where fjords, glaciers, rocky coasts, coastal wetlands, estuaries, rivers, lakes, and coastal ocean ecosystems meet and interact ...
Drone Photography by: Sara Wilde

Project CREATeS

Youth were invited to engage in a dialogue about suicide prevention by telling their own stories, and were supported to make these stories into digital stories, or short films.

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